The Rana Raj Singh, with the main body, took post in the Nain defile, but hanging on his left flank, and ready to turn it as soon as the mountains were entered.

Towards the plains eastwards, it has three practicable passes, one in the north at Dailwara, a second more central near Dobari, and a third, that of Nain, leading to the intricacies of Chappan in the south.

Of these passes the Emperor Aurangzeb chose the middle one as being the most practicable, and encamped near the Udai Sagar lake, on the left of its entrance.

He then advanced to Dobari at the very mouth of the gorge. Instead of entering it, he halted his force, and, by the advice of Tibur Khan, sent on Prince Akbar with 50,000 men to the capital.

This caution of the wily monarch saved him from the ably planned scheme of the Rana Raj Singh; otherwise, not only his son’s force, but his entire army would have been trapped.

War with Mewar

Prince Akbar advanced. Not a soul interrupted his progress to the city. Palaces, gardens, lakes, and isles, met his eye, but no living thing ; all was silence. Accustomed to entering towns deserted through fear of his licentious soldiery, Akbar felt no apprehensions.

His camp was pitched, his men were already enjoying the unwonted rest and security, when suddenly, as if from the clouds, the heir of Mewar with his whole force was upon them. In a few moments they were dispersed with terrific and unrelenting slaughter.

Rajput in Battle
Rajput in Battle

Akbar attempted a retreat to the plains of Marwar by the route of Gogunda. It was a choice between the evils, and he took the worst. The Bhils of the mountains outstripped his retreat.

Death menaced the Mughals on every side ; at the hands of their enemies if they tried to escape, by starvation if they remained where they were.

It was only the humanity of the Rana Raj Singh that saved them from annihilation. He admitted overtures, confided in protestations to renounce the object of the war. He sent guides to conduct them through the defile of Jilwara, nor did they halt till protected by the walls of Chittor.

War with Marwar

Almost at the same time another body of the Imperialists, under the celebrated Dalhir Khan, who attempted to enter from Marwar. Rajput chiefs of Rupnagar and Ganora attacked Dalhir Khan in the long intricate gorge. Rajput completely destroyed them after a desperate battle. On each occasion, a vast booty fell into the hands of the Rajputs.

The Rana Raj Singh next gave the signal for a general attack on Aurangzeb, who was still at Dobari, watching with his son the result of the operations under Akbar and Delhir.

Aurangzeb could not withstand the onset. His guns, though manned by Franks, were unable to protect him against the just cause and avenging steel of the Rajputs.

He was beaten and compelled to disgraceful flight, with an immense loss in men and equipment. The Rana had to lament many brave leaders, home and auxiliary ; but the imperial standard, elephants, and state equipage, fell into his hands. This glorious encounter occurred in the spring of 1681.

Rajput goes on offensive

Sawal Das cut off his communications between Chitor and Ajmer, and alarmed the tyrant for his personal safety. Leaving, therefore, this perilous warfare to his sons Azim and Akbar, with instructions how to act till reinforced, he quitted Mewar, and, at the head of his guards, went to Ajmer.

Thence he dispatched Khan Rohilla, with 12,000 men against Sawal Das, with supplies and equipments for his sons. The Rathor, joined by all the troops of Marwar, met and gave him battle at Pur Mandal. The Imperialists driven back from Ajmer with great loss.

For once the Rajputs avenged themselves, in imitation of the tyrant, on the religion of their adversaries. The kazis were bound and shaved, and the Korans thrown into wells. The minister was unrelenting, and made Malwa a desert, and from the fruits of his incursions repaired the resources of his master.

Flushed with success, he formed a junction with the heir of Mewar, and gave battle to Azim at Chittor. On this occasion, the flower of Mewar with the Rathor and Khichi auxiliaries fought the enemy, and obtained a glorious victory.

The Mughal prince being defeated and pursued with great slaughter to Ranthambor, which he entered. This was a just revenge, for it was Azim who had surprised Chittor in the preceding year.

Rajput took War outside Rajputana

While the Rana Raj Singh won all his battle engagement. Prince Bhim with the left division invaded Gujarat and captured Idar. He expelled Hassan and his garrison from Patan, the residence of the provincial satrap, plundered the area.

Sidpur and other towns shared the same fate, and he was in full march for Surat when the benevolence of the Rana Raj Singh, touched by the woes of the fugitives who came to demand his forbearance, caused him to recall Bhim in the midst of his career.

Dial Shah, the civil minister of Mewar, and a man of high courage and activity, headed another flying force, which ravaged Malwa to the Narbadda and the Betwa. Rajput plundered Sarangpur, Mandu, Ujjain, and Chanderi, and numerous garrisons put to the sword.

In Mewar the contest terminated with the expulsion of the Imperialists from the country. The Rana Raj Singh, thereupon, in support of the minor prince of Marwar, united his arms to the forces of that state. He opened a new campaign at Ganora, the chief town of Godwar.

The heroic mother of the infant prince had, since the death of her husband, resisted every aggression. She had on more than one occasion inflicted loss on her antagonists.

Prince Bhim commanded the Sisodias. He formed a junction with the Rathors, and the combined force gave battle to the royal troops led by Akbar and Tibur Khan. They won a complete victory.

Their success is attributed to the stratagem of a Rajput chief, who, having captured 500 camels from the Imperialists, conceived the idea of fixing lighted torches to their heads and driving them into the royal camp. Rajput carried out their attack in the resulted confusion.

Akbar as new leader of Rebel

On their continued success, the Rana Raj Singh and his allies meditated the project of dethroning the tyrant, and setting up his son Akbar in his place. Akbar received the proposal with favour, but he lacked the circumspection which characterised Aurangzeb, whose penetration defeated the scheme when on the eve of execution.

The Rajput army had already united with Akbar, and the astrologer had fixed the day which was to exalt him ; but the revealer of secrets baffled his own prediction by disclosing it to the emperor. Aurangzeb, attended only by his guards at Ajmer. He had recourse to the same stratagem which had raised him to the throne.

Aurangzeb has no time to be lose as rebellious Akbar was close at hand. It would be long before Shah Alam and Azim could come to his assistance. He penned a letter to his son which was dropped by a spy in the tent of the Rajput leader, Durga Das.

The letter applauded a pretended scheme by which Akbar was to fall upon the Rajputs when they engaged the emperor. Aurangzeb ruse succeeded. The Rajputs detached themselves from the prince, who had apparently betrayed them.

Tibur Khan, in despair, lost his life in an attempt to assassinate the emperor. Soon the reinforcements under Shah Alam and Azim arrived to assist Aurangzeb.

The Rajputs still offered refuge to Akbar ; but, aware of his father’s vigour of character, he deemed himself unsafe in his neighborhood.

He accepted an escort of 5,000 horse. Durga Das Rathor took him through the defiles of Mewar to the Mahratta leader, Sambaji, at Palargarh. Soon English ship conveyed him to Persia.

Later Events

The Akbar rebellion diverted resources of Mughals and Aurangzeb was forced to make peace in Mewar. The capabilities of the Mughal forces were over-extended.

In 1680, Aurangzeb bribed chiefs of Rana Raj Singh to poisoned him. Soon Rana Raj Singh died due to poisoning. Mughals abandoned the campaign in Mewar but Marwar remained in a state of war for nearly three decades.

Durgadas took advantage of the disturbances following the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 to seize Jodhpur and eventually evict the occupying Mughal force. Ajit Singh was proclaimed as Maharaja of Jodhpur. He went on to rebuild all the temples that Mughals desecrated.

The reigns of Raj Singh and Jai Singh illustrate the obvious truth, that on the personal character of the chief of a feudal government everything depends.

The former, infusing by his talents and energy patriotic sentiments into all his subordinates. He vanquished in a series of conflicts the vast military resources of the empire, led by the emperor, his sons, and chosen generals.

While his successor, heir to this moral strength, and with every collateral aid, lowered her to a stage of contempt from which no talent could subsequently raise her.

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