Babur was born in 1494 in Fergana (Uzbekistan) to ruler of small Mughal principality. He was descended from Timur from his father side and Chingiz Khan from his mother side. Timur conquered and looted Delhi in 1398. So, Babur later laid claim to throne of Delhi as he descended from Timur.
Ruler of Fargana
In 1494, Babur was only fourteen years old when his father suddenly died. Babur assumed full responsibility of ruler with great enthusiasm. He tried to fulfill his father dream of conquering Samarkand. Samarkand was his ancestral home and capital city of Timur. Like his father, he unsuccessful in conquering Samarkand.
Conquest of India
He made his last failed attempts to conquer Samarkand in 1511. So, he turned his attention towards India. Ibrahim Lodi was Ruler of Delhi and control much of India. Rana Sanga was another strong Rajput Ruler who control Rajputana. He has defeated Lodi in many Battle. Babar has to defeat both if he wants to rule North India. Soon, he was invited to India by Daulat Khan Lodi, dissatisfied uncle of Ibrahim Lodi to invade India. He immediately invaded India and conquered Lahore in 1524. He established strong garrison to defend the city. He returned to Kabul to reorganize his army.
He returned to India with much bigger army with intention of conquering north India. He met Ibrahim Lodi at battlefield Panipat on 21 April 1526. He used gunpowder artillery and innovative encircling tactics to win the battle. Ibrahim Lodi fought bravely but died on the battlefield. He reached Delhi in three days and Agra within a week after the battle and occupied both the city. Babur fought series of battle with remnant of Afghan power to consolidate his empire. In 1527, Rana Sanga along with ruler of Marwar, Amber, Gwalior and Ajmer challenged Babur for the supremacy over north India. Babur defeated the coalition in the battle of Khanwa. In 1529, he defeated Afghan chief of Bihar and Bengal loyal to dead Lodi Sultan in battle of Ghaghara. He has established complete control over north India. He was able to expel Rajput from Ranthambore, Chanderi and Gwalior. His empire extended from Kabul in West to Bengal in East and Chanderi in south.
In 1530, according to popular belief, Babar eldest son Humayun fell ill. Babar prayed to God to spare the life of his son and instead take his life. Humayun got well and Babur fell ill and died the later the same years.
Babar has versatile personality, he was not only warrior and military strategist but also a writer and poet. He was the real founder of Mughal dynasty in India.
Babur wrote his autobiography called Babur Nama.
He build garden wherever he lived. He build famous Ram Bagh near Agra.
Babar in Arabic means Tiger