Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley civilization must have taken thousands of years to reach advance stage.
Indus Valley civilization might be secular civilization, and the religious element did not dominate the scene.
Later cultural periods in India clearly followed Indus Valley Civilization.
The Indus Valley Civilization, which archaeologist discovered impressive remains at Mohenjodaro in Sind and at Harappa in the Western Punjab.
It gives us the earliest picture of India’s past. These excavations have revolutionized the conception of ancient history.
Archaeologist found remains of this civilization as far apart as Kathiawar in the west and the Ambala district of the Punjab.
They found multiple reason for believing that it spread to the Gangetic Valley.
The inscriptions found at Mohenjodaro have so far not been fully deciphered.
These people of the Indus Valley had many contacts with the Sumerian civilization of that period.
Even Archaeologist found some evidence of an Indian colony, probably of merchants, at Akkad.
Indus Valley Civilization Trade and Commerce
Indus cities sold manufactured product even in the markets on the Tigris and Euphrates.
Conversely, Indus Valley copied a few Sumerian devices in art, Mesopotamia toilet sets, and a cylinder seal.
Their Trade had both raw materials and luxury articles.
They regularly imported fish, from the Arabian Sea coasts, augmented the food supplies of Mohenjodaro.
Ancient Indian used Cotton for textiles even at that remote period in India.
At this point only India exclusively used cotton for textiles.
Western world didn’t use until 2,000 or 3,000 years later.
We know very little about prehistoric Egypt or Mesopotamia or anywhere else in western Asia to compare with the well-built baths and commodious houses of the citizens of Mohenjodaro.
Building and City Planing in Indus Civilization
In these countries, elite spent much money and thought on the building of magnificent temples for the gods and on the palaces and tombs of kings.
However, the rest of the people seemingly content themselves with insignificant dwellings of mud.
In the Indus Valley reversed the picture with the finest structures erected for the convenience of the citizens.
The first of their kind public and private baths, as well as the excellent drainage system not discovered anywhere else we find at Mohenjo-daro.
Later they built two-storied private houses, made of baked bricks, with bath-rooms and a porter’s lodge, as well as tenements.
Nothing that we know of in other countries at this period bears any resemblance.
Later they developed their own style to the models of rams, dogs, and other animals, or to engravings on the seals.
Indus Valley produced the best model notably the humped and shorthorn bulls.
However these model contain breadth of treatment not surpassed in glyptic art.
Until the classical age of Greece, its impossible to match the exquisitely supple modelling of the two human statuettes from Harappa.
Religion in Ancient Indian Civilization
In the religion of the Indus people much might be paralleled in other countries.
It might be true of every prehistoric and most historic religion as well.
But, taken as a whole, their religion can hardly be distinguished from still living Hinduism.
Archaeologist collected surprising wealth of ornaments of gold, silver, precious stones, metal implements and weapons from the ruins.
Mohanjadaro’s well-planned streets and a magnificent system of drains, reflect the vigilance of some regular municipal government.
Strong Central authority of town secured the observance of town-planning laws.
They maintained approved lines for streets and lanes over several flood destroyed reconstructions.
People of the Indus Valley civilization
Possibly people of this civilization had their own indigenous culture. Its roots and offshoots may be found even in southern India.
Some scholars find an essential similarity between these people and the Dravidian races and culture of south India.
Even if some people migration to India, this could only have taken place some thousands of years before the date assigned to Mohenjodaro.
However for all practical purposes, we can treat them as the indigenous inhabitants of India.