Who were Diadochi?
The Diadochi were relatives and friends of Alexander the Great, who after his death in 323BC fought for control over his empire.
The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent wars between the Diadochi mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River Valley.
Conquest of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great succeeded his father King Philip II to the throne at the age of 20 in 336BC.
After becoming king of Mecadonia he conducted a lengthy military campaign throughout Western Asia and Northeastern Africa.
He was never undefeated in battle and became one of history’s most successful military commanders.
By 323BC, at the age of thirty two, he created one of the largest empires in history, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.
At the time of his death on June 10, 323 BC, he left behind a huge empire.
The constant campaign of Alexander’s army resulted in the frequent changes its leadership due to replacement of casualties and promotion of new talent to the current operations.
The institution of the companion cavalry gave the ancient Macedonian army a ready pool of officers for replacement.
Staff meetings to adjust command structure were nearly a daily event in Alexander’s army.
This created an ongoing expectation among the companion of receiving a short term important and powerful command.
At the time of Alexander’s death, all possibilities to adjust command structure were suddenly suspended.
The companion vanished with Alexander death to be replaced instantaneously by the Diadochi.
These Diadochi were officers and relative of Alexander who were holding important and powerful position at the time of Alexander’s death.
Though many Diadochi were holding powerful position but in ensuing power struggle it was not a significant factor for their success.
He commanded the infantry and navy of Alexander the great during his war of conquest.
After prolonged war of conquest, veteran soldiers revolted at Opis on the Tigris in 324BC. After this, just before his death, Alexander ordered Craterus to take the command of veteran soldier and return back home to Macedonia.
Antipater was one of the oldest members of Alexander court. He used to advise King Philip II, Alexander’s father. After King Philip II death, he became the adviser to Alexander.
When Alexander launched his war of conquest, he made Antipater as Regent of Macedon and General of Greece in Alexander’s absence.
In 323 BCE, Alexander ordered Craterus to march his veterans back to Macedon and become regent of Macedonia by replacing Antipater. He also ordered Antipater to march to Persia with fresh troops.
However the death of Alexander the great prevented the order from being carried out.
He was the son of Antipater and companion of Alexander the Great.
His family was distant relatives to the ruling Argead dynasty of Macedonia. Alexander the Great was the last king of Argead dynasty.
Cassander arrived at Alexander the Great’s court in Babylon in 323 BC. He visited Alexander the Great court to help uphold Antipater’s regency in Macedon.
Antigonus was the son of Macedonian nobleman. He first served under King Philip II and after his death he served Philip’s son Alexander.
During the battle of the Granicus in 334 BC, Antigonus commanded a division of the Alexander’s army.
Meleager was a Macedonian officer and accompanied the Alexander in his quest to conquer Asia. He was one of the most experienced officers of Alexander the great.
Perdiccas was officer in Alexander the Great’s army.
As a commander of battalion of the Macedonian phalanx, he distinguished himself during the conquest of Thebes in 335 BC, where he was severely wounded.
He participated in Alexander’s campaign during his war of conquest.
He rose through the ranks and became commander of the elite Companion cavalry in Alexander army just before his death.
Just before his death, Alexander gave Perdiccas his ring.
At a very early age, he became a private secretary by Philip II of Macedon. After his death he became private secretary of Alexander the Great. He accompanied Alexander during his war of conquest.
He was just 23 years old when he joined Alexander army and accompanied Alexander in his war of conquest. Gradually he became friend of Alexander the Great
In 327BC, during Alexander campaign in India, Selecus became commander of the elite infantry corps in the Macedonian army, the “Shield-bearers”.
During the subsequent Battle of the Hydaspes (326 BC), he led his elite infantry corps against the elephants of King Porus.
King Alexander IV
Alexander IV was the son of Alexander the Great through his wife Roxana. He was the successor of Alexander the great.
Polyperchon was commander in Macedonia army and served under Philip II and Alexander the Great. He accompanied Alexander throughout his long journeys of conquest.
After the Battle of Issus in 333, Alexander gave Polyperchon the command of the Tymphaean battalion of the phalanx. He retained his command of the Tymphaean battalion till Alexander death.
Just before his death alexander ordered Polyperchon and his veterans to march back to Macedon along with Craterus, but had only reached Cilicia by the time of Alexander’s death in 323.
Despite of alexanders death Polyperchon and Craterus continued onto Greece.
Lysimachus and his family belong to noblility of Macedonia. He and his brothers enjoyed prominent positions in Alexander’s circle.
He was a bodyguard of Philip II and after his death became bodyguard of Alexander the great.
In 324 BC, in Susa, he was awared in recognition for his actions in India.
When Alexander launched his war of conquest, Ptolemy was one of the seven bodyguards of Alexander.
He participated in the Battle of Issus and commanded the division of troops on the left wing under the overall authority of Parmenion.
He also accompanied Alexander to the Oracle in the Siwa Oasis, where oracle proclaimed Alexander as a son of Zeus.
Ptolemy became very close companion of Alexander. Later Alexander gave Ptolemy his first independent command during the campaign against the rebel Bessus. Ptolemy defeat and captured Bessus. Later he handed him over to Alexander for execution.
Ptolemy also played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India.
Olympias was the fourth wife of Philip II, the king of Macedonia and the mother of Alexander the Great.
She played important role in Alexander’s life. She was extremely influential and became de facto leader of Macedon during Alexander’s conquests.
Events after the death of Alexander the great
On 11 June 323 BC, at a young age of 32, Alexander the great died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon. At time of his death his wife Roxana was pregnant.
Just after his death, Meleager was the first to propose in the council of officers, that Alexander’s half brother Arrhidaeus should at once be elected as king.
Meleager want to elect king immediately rather than wait to see if the pregnant Roxana would produce a son as Roxane was Persian and Meleager wanted to install a king who was a Macedonian.
As Alexander gave Perdiccas his ring just before his death, so Perdiccas assumed the leadership of the council of officers.
While council of officers were meeting, and discontent Macedonian troops mutinied against officers.
Perdiccas sent Meleager to appease the rebel troops, but instead of doing so, he joined the mutineers.
Meleager assumed the leadership of the infantry and declared Arrhidaeus as a new king.
Soon, he ordered ordered the execution of Perdiccas. But before it could be implemented Perdiccas decided to leave the city.
He along with all the generals and cavalry established themselves outside the city wall as they fear attack by Meleager.
As both side reached a stalemate, so they decided to negotiate. Eumenes brokered the deal between the two sides.
Perdiccas agreed to declare Arrhidaeus as king with condition that if Roxanne produces a son, he will be joint ruler along with Arrhidaeus.
Since, Arrhidaeus was mentally disabled, so Perdiccas and Meleager became his regent.
Later, Arrhidaeus was crowned as king and Perdiccas develop a strong relationship with him. Meleager, thought himself as a kingmaker, develop a false sense of security.
Soon, Perdiccas instigated King Arrhidaeus to discipline his army. Under the pretext of general review of the army, King Arrhidaeus assembled his army.
In the middle of the review, suddenly, the king demanded surrender of all the leaders of the recent disorders.
The whole army was surprised as 300 of the alleged mutineers being singled out and executed.
Though, Meleager, being regent, was not personally attacked by the King. But he feared for his life and fled to the temple.
Soon, Perdiccas sent his cavalry unit to track him. They pursued Meleager and put him to death.
Perdiccas awarded his supporter by making them governor or satraps of the various parts of the Empire.
Ptolemy got Egypt ; Philotas took Cilicia; Peithon recieved Media; Antigonus got Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia.
Antipater and Craterus became joint governor of Macedon and the rest of Greece.
For his valuable services in brokering a deal, Alexander’s old secretary, Eumenes received Cappadocia and Paphlagonia.
In the east, Perdiccas largely left Alexander’s arrangements intact – Porus governed his kingdoms in India; Alexander’s father-in-law Oxyartes governed Gandhara..
Revolt in Greece
Soon after the death of Alexander the great the revolt erupted in Greece against the Macedonian rule. The revolt in Greece is known as the Lamian War.
Athens joined its forces with other cities and besieging Antipater in the fortress of Lamia.
Though Macedonian army able to break through the siege and relieve Antipater, but war continued.
Soon, Craterus arrived in Greece with his army. He defeats the Greek army in the Battle of Crannon on September 5, 322 BCE.
This defeat broke the back of Greek army and for next few years brought an end to any resistance by Greek city state.
Meanwhile, Peithon suppressed a revolt of Greek settlers in the eastern parts of the Agean Sea. Perdiccas and Eumenes also suppressed the revolt in Cappadocia.
First War of the Diadochi (322–320 BCE)
In 322BC, Perdiccas attempted to marry Alexander’s sister, Cleopatra. If successful, this marriage would have given Perdiccas a claim to the Macedonian throne.
To prevent this marriage, Antipater, Craterus and Antigonus formed a coalition against Perdiccas.
Antipater was first to act as he sent his army, under the command of Craterus, into Asia Minor against the supporter of Perdiccas.
This aggression by Antipater and Craterus resulted in war known as first war of the Diadochi.
Around this time, Ptolemy stole the dead body of Alexander, when Perdiccas’s army was taking it from Babylonia to Macedonia.
So, Ptolemy also joined them in rebellion against Perdiccas.
Eumenes, governor of Cappadocia and supporter of Perdiccas defeated and killed Craterus at the battle of the Hellespont.
At that point of time, Perdiccas invaded Egypt. However during this invasion, Perdiccas failed to cross Nile.
Frustrated with that Perdiccas’s own general Peithon, Seleucus, and Antigenes murdered Perdiccas.
The three murderers of Perdiccas—Seleucus, Peithon, and Antigenes—than divided his domain and each received the provinces of Babylonia, Media, and Susiana respectively.
Soon, Ptolemy signed the treated with murderer of Perdiccas and retained Egypt. After this perdiccas army withdrew and three murderers started their rule of the province.
Antigonus was given task of rooting out supporter of Perdiccas. The last remaining supporter of Perdiccas was Eumenes, who was still at large with a victorious army in Asia Minor.
So, Antipater retained the control of Europe, while Antigonus, held a similar position in Asia Minor if he is able to defeat Eumenes.
Due to advancing army of Antigonus, other regional governor started gathering their army to oppose Antigonus
In 319 BC, Antigonus received reinforcements from Antipater’s European army and defeated regional governor’s army.
After this battle, Antigonus launched the attack on Eumenes’s army.
Antigonus easily defeated Eumenes’s army after one of Eumenes’s general fled the battlefield and betrayed Eumenes
Although defeated, Eumenes track down this traitor and killed him, which restored the faith of his fleeing men.
After the victory, Antigonus left the battlefield to track down Eumenes and his army and forgot to give proper burial to dead soldiers.
Determined to follow tradition, Eumenes returned to battlefield to honor the dead and give them proper burial.
This act of Eumenes greatly impressed Antigonus. Instead of killing Eumenes, he wanted to make Eumenes his officer.
Soon Eumenes establish his base in Nora. Antigonus surrounded Nora and started negotiation with Eumenes.
Soon negotiations broke down as Eumenes was unable to secure a deal he thought fair. So Eumenes continued to hold Nora, until he gets favorable position in the imperial hierarchy.
Antigonus felt that Eumenes was not a threat to his power, Antigonus departed with his army, leaving behind only small forces to blockade Nora.
Eumenes held out for more than a year until the death of Antipater. Death of Antipater threw his opponents into disarray which ended first war Diadochi.
Second War of the Diadochi (318–315 BC)
Antipater died in 319BC. He left his domain in the hand of his able lieutenant Polyperchon instead of his son Cassander.
So, Polyperchon became the Regent of the empire and gained control over King Alexander Arrhidaeus, his wife Queen Eurydice and Alexander the great’s mother Olympias, who were living in Macedonia at that point of time.
Cassander’s refusal to accept Polyperchon as new regent of empire sparked the Second War of the Diadochi.
The two sides soon went to war with each other.
Polyperchon allied himself with Eumenes and Cassander formed an alliance with Antigonus and Ptolemy.
Polyperchon controlled the Macedonia and attacked Greece to bring it under his control.
Under the pretext of fighting for their independence, Polyperchon successful gained control of the many Greek cities. Though, Athens remained outside his control.
Polyperchon attacked Athens to gain control of the city. But before he can capture the city, Cassander arrived with reinforcements from Asia Minor.
Although most cities on the Peloponnese had sided with Polyperchon, the influential city of Megalopolis had sided with Cassander.
Soon, Polyperchon laid siege of Megalopolis.
After a few weeks Polyperchon failed to capture Megalopolis and marched back to Athens.
Failure in capturing Megalopolis damaged Polyperchon’s reputation. Soon several Greek cities joined Cassander’s alliance.
Sensing victory, Cassander and Antigonus went on the offensive. Soon, Antigonus’s fleet destroyed Polyperchon’s fleet at Byzantium.
Shortly thereafter, Cassander was able to drive Polyperchon from Macedon. He became regent of empire as he gained control disabled king Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife Queen Eurydice, as they defected to his side
Polyperchon along with his army retreated to Epirus with the infant Alexander the great infant son King Alexander IV. Soon, Alexander the great mother Olympias joined him along with his army.
Polyperchon formed an alliance with Olympias and King Aeacides of Epirus. Together they led an army into Macedon when Cassander was on campaign.
They successfully defeated the army of king Philip Arrhidaeus and captured him. Olympias ordered the execution king Philip Arrhidaeus and forced Queen Eurydice to commit suicide.
Cassander reorganized his army and captured Macedonia once again. While Polyperchon escaped, Olympias took control of Pydna. Cassander besieged Olympias in Pydna.
Soon he captured the city and murdered Olympias. He also took Alexander the great infant son King Alexander IV and his mother Roxana into his custody.
Thus Cassander became the dominant player in the European part of the Macedonian Empire and reduced Polyperchon as a minor contender in the Wars of the Diadochi.
Meanwhile in Asia, Eumenes, was able to gathered a small army in Cappadocia.
To expand his army and his power, he took control of royal treasury in Cilicia, which he used to recruit large army.
He also secured the services of 6,000 of Alexander’s veterans, called the Silver Shields and the Hypaspists stationed in Cilicia.
After defeating Polyperchon’s navy, Antigonus marched against Eumenes with a great army.
Fearing defeat at the hand of Antigonus large army, Eumenes marched his army east to gather support in the eastern provinces.
Soon, most of the eastern satraps joined his cause, which doubled his army.
After marching through Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Susiana and Media they ultimately faced each other on a plain of the Paraitakene in southern Media.
There they fought a great battle which ended inconclusively.
The next year in 315BC, they fought another great but inconclusive battle. But in this battle unit of Antigonus’s army plundered the camp of Eumenes army.
Antigonus used the plunder as bargaining tool and bribed silver shield in Eumenes army. Soon, 6000 silver shield veterans changed sides. They arrested and handed over Eumenes to Antigonus.
Antigonus executed Eumenes and some of his officers. With death of Eumenes, the war in the eastern part of the Empire also ended.
Antigonus and Cassander emerge victor of second war of the Diadochi as their enemies were either dead or on run.
In the summer of 315 BC Antigonus arrived in Babylon and was warmly welcomed by Seleucus.
The relationship between the two soon turned cold, as Antigonus demanded that Seleucus give him the income from the province, which Seleucus refused to do.
Seleucus feared Antigonus and fled to Egypt with 50 horsemen.
Antigonus now controlled Asia and the eastern provinces of empire. Cassander and Lysimachus controlled Macedon and Thrace respectively. Ptolemy controlled Egypt, Syria, Cyrene and Cyprus.
Third War of the Diadochi ( 314–311 BC)
Though Antigonus controlled most eastern empire but most of the governors of eastern provinces don’t want Antigonus to rule all of Asia.
In 314 BC, they demanded Antigonus to give up control of some of his province and share the treasures he had captured from Eumenes.
Antigonus told them to get ready for a war. Soon both sides went to war.
Ptolemy, Seleucus (commanding army of Ptolemy), Lysimachus, and Cassander formed an alliance against Antigonus.
Antigonus formed an alliance with his former enemy Polyperchon, and send him money to raise an army to fight Lysimachus, and Cassander.
Antigonus went on offensive and besieged Tyre, which was under the control of Ptolemy.
Within a year he took Tyre and turned his army toward Asia Minor to defeat governor of neighboring provinces of Lycia, Lydia and Greater Phrygia who has joined Cassander and Ptolemy alliance.
While Antigonus attack Asia Minor with his army, he left behind leaving his oldest son Demetrius to protect Syria and Phoenica against Ptolemy.
Ptolemy and Seleucus invaded Syria to retake back Tyre and defeated Demetrius in the Battle of Gaza.
This was fatal blow to Antigonus as it weakens his control over eastern provinces. Sensing this weakness, Seleucus went east and secured control of Babylon (his old satrapy).
Soon he launched campaign to secure the eastern satrapies of Alexander’s empire.
Antigonus was not a person to go down easily. He secured rebel provinces of Asia Minor, and then went south to fight Ptolemy.
Soon, he drove off Ptolemy from Syria and sent his son Demetrius east to take care of Seleucus. He also sent his nephews Telesphorus and Polemaios to Greece to fight Cassander.
Antigonus realized that he cannot fight on all front, so he decided to give priority in recovering his eastern domain from Seleucus.
He concluded the peace treaty with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander, but continued the war with Seleucus.
Soon in 315 BC, he went east to fight Seleucus but failed to dislodge Seleucus. In one battle, Seleucus even defeated Antigonus.
So, by 311 BC, Antigonus withdrew from eastern provinces and gave up his claim on the eastern satrapies.
At the end of third war of Diadochi,
Cassander ruled Macedon and Thessaly,
Lysimachus ruled Thrace,
Antigonus ruling Asia Minor, Syria and Phoenicia,
Seleucus ruling the eastern provinces and
Ptolemy ruling Egypt and Cyprus.
End of Argead Dynasty
Around this time, Cassander quietly murdered young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxane.
With death of Alexander the great’s son King Alexander IV, Argead dynasty came to an end, which had ruled Macedon for several centuries
As Cassander did not publicly announce the deaths, all of the various generals continued to recognize the dead Alexander as king, but in reality they acted s king within their domain.
Babylonian War (311–309 BC)
Antigonus launched another campaign to regain his eastern province under the control of Seleucus Nicator.
They fought many battle in war known as Babylonian war between 311BC and 309BC, but in the end Seleucus Nicator emerge victorius.
Defeated Antigonus retreated back to Asia Minor and accepted that Babylonia, Media, and Elam belonged to Seleucus.
Thus Seleucus Nicator gained complete comtrol over his eastern domain. Soon Seleucus march east to India to expand his territory.
There he faced powerful Mauryan empire ruled Chandragupta Maurya. Instead of fighting with powerful Mauryan Empire, he signed a treaty with them.
Seleucus gave Chandragupta Maurya eastern parts of the Seleucid Empire, which included Afghanistan, Pakistan and west India. In return he got peace treaty and 500 war elephant, which he used to consolidate his control over Iran and Afganistan.
Due to consolidation of eastern most provinces and 500 war elephants, Seleucus became the most powerful ruler since Alexander the Great.
Fourth War of the Diadochi (308–301 BC)
While seleucus was fighting Antigonus and went to east to consolidated his empire, Ptolemy had been expanding his power into the Aegean by capturing Cyprus.
After his defeat in Babylonian War, Antigonus turned his attention to Cassander and Ptolemy.
Antigonus send his son Demetrius to regain control of Greece from Cassander.
In 307 BC, Demetrius took Athens, and proclaiming the city free again. Demetrius now turned his attention to Ptolemy
Demetrius now turned his attention to Ptolemy and attacked his fleet. He invaded Cyprus and destroyed Ptolemy’s fleet at the Battle of Salamis.
After this victory over both Ptolemy and Cassander, Antigonus and his son Demetrius assumed the crown and declared themselves as joint king.
There declaration was followed by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and eventually Cassander, with each of them declared themselves as king.
In 306, Antigonus tried to invade Egypt, but storm prevented his fleet from supplying the army. So, Antigonus and his army retreated back.
Next, Antigonus and Demetrius turned their attention to Rhodes, as it threatens their holding in Greece.
So, Demetrius besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. Soon, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander sent reinforcement to Rhodes.
After the long siege, ruler of Rhodes reached a compromise with Demetrius. As per the treaty they would support Antigonus and Demetrius against all enemies, except their great ally Ptolemy.
For his role in preventing the fall of Rhodes, Ptolemy took the title of Soter (“Savior”). However, the real beneficiary of the treaty was Antigonus and Demetrius who got free hand to attack Cassander in Greece.
Soon, Demetrius attacked, defeated Cassander and expelled him from Greece. He then formed and became leader of a new Hellenic League to defend the Greek cities against all enemies (mainly Cassander).
On verge of defeat, Cassander sued for peace. Antigonus rejected Cassander offer for peace and invaded Thessaly. Cassander fought a desperate battle in inconclusive engagements.
Soon Cassander asked for help from his allies (Ptolemy and Lysimachus). Lysimachus soon launch a attack on Asia Minor. This attacked forced Demetrius to leave Thessaly and send his army to Asia Minor to fight Lysimachus.
Lysimachus with the help of Cassander, overran much of western Asia Minor. However, Antigonus and Demetrius soon reorganized their army and isolate Lysimachus near Ipsus.
Now, Seleucus saw his chance to destroy army of Antigonus. He arrived in Ipsus just in time to save Lysimachus from disaster.
Battle of Ipsus
Seleucus’s horse-archers rain down missiles on the Antigonus phalanx.
The morale of the Antigonus phalanx collapsed, and some of the heavy infantry either defected or fled the battlefield.
Antigonus who was stationed in the centre, tried to rally his men but he was killed by several javelins thrown by allied skirmishers.
This ended the career of one of the greatest General of Alexander the Great.
With the death of Antigonus, his army dissolved, and the battle effectively ended.
Antigonus son Demetrius escaped with 5,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry.
Demetrius went to Greece in an attempt to preserve the remnants of his empire there.
Next, Lysimachus and Seleucus divided up Antigonus’s Asian territories between them. Lysimachus got western Asia Minor and Seleucus the rest.
The struggle over Macedon( 298–285 BC)
Demetrius retained control of Cyprus, the Peloponnese, and many of the Aegean islands.
Cassander, ruler of Macedonia, died in 298 BC. His sons, Antipater and Alexander V, proved to be weak rulers.
Alexander V started quarreling with his older brother over the control of Macedonia.
Later he asked Demetrius for help, who quickly captured some of the provinces of Asia Minor.
In 294 BC, Demetrius invaded Macedonia. He killed Alexander, and seized control of Macedon for himself
While Demetrius was consolidating his control of mainland Greece, his enemy captured his territories in Asia Minor and Aegean Sea.
Soon, rebellion broke out in Macedonia and Demetrius was forced to leave Macedonia. However, Demetrius was able to maintain his control of Greece.
In 287BC, Demetrius launched a campaign to regain control of Asia Minor. He left the his son Antigonus Gonatas in charge of Greece.
Though, he successful captured many provinces of Asia Minor. However in 286BC, after one of the battle, Seleucus captured him. Demetrius drink himself to death in captivity after two years.
The struggle of Lysimachus and Seleucus (285–281 BC)
After defeat of Demetrius, Lysimachus and Pyrrhus attacked and captured Thessaly and Athens from Demetrius’s son Antigonus Gonatas.
However, Lysimachus and Pyrrhus soon turned on each other and Lysimachus drove Pyrrhus out of Macedonia. Thus Lysimachus became master of Alexander’s European empire.
In Egypt, Ptolemy decided to make his younger son Ptolemy Philadelphus. His elder son Ptolemy Ceraunus fled to Seleucus.
In 282 BC, roughly 41 years after Alexander the Great death, Ptolemy died peacefully in his bed. He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus.
In the same year, Lysimachus second wife provoked him in murdering his son Agathocles.
Agathocles’s wife Arsinoe fled to Asia Minor and asked Seleucus for his help. Seleucus got a perfect excuse to make war on his former allies.
Seleucus appointed his son Antiochus as a ruler of his Asian territories and launched campaign against Lysimachus.
In Battle of Corupedium in Lydia in 281 BC, he defeated and killed Lysimachus.
However, Seleucus did not live to enjoy his triumph. Soon after his victory he was murdered by Ptolemy Ceraunus. The reason for this murder still remains unclear.
The Gallic invasions and consolidation (280–275 BC)
After the death of Lysimachus, Ptolemy Ceraunus gained the control of Macedonia.
However, war of Diadochi and death of Lysimachus had left the Danube border open to barbarian invasions.
Sensing weakness, powerful tribes of Gauls rampage through Macedon and Greece. They even invaded Asia Minor.
Invading tribes even killed Ptolemy Ceraunus in one of the battle.
After many years of chaos, Demetrius’s son Antigonus Gonatas regained control of Macedonia.
In Asia Minor, Seleucus’s son, Antiochus I defeat the Gallic Tribe and settle down some of the defeated tribe in Phrygia, which later was known as Galatia after them.
End of War of Diadochi
Fifty years after Alexander’s death, war of Diadochi came to end and some sort of order was restored
Ptolemy and his sons ruled Egypt and southern Syria, Seleucus and his sons ruled vast Asian territories of the empire and Antigonus grandson Antigonus Gonatas ruled Macedon and Greece.